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Boylan, Joan M; Sanders, Jennifer A; Neretti, Nicola; Gruppuso, Philip A

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates growth factor signaling, nutrient abundance, cell growth, and proliferation. On the basis of our interest in somatic growth in the late gestation fetus, we characterized the role of mTOR in the regulation of hepatic gene expression and translation initiation in fetal and adult rats . Our strategy was to manipulate mTOR signaling in vivo and then characterize the transcriptome and translating mRNA in liver tissue. In adult rats , we used the nonproliferative growth model of refeeding after a period of fasting and the proliferative model of liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. We also studied livers from preterm fetal rats (embryonic day 19) in which fetal hepatocytes are asynchronously proliferating. All three models employed rapamycin to inhibit mTOR signaling. Analysis of the transcriptome in fasted-refed animals showed rapamycin-mediated induction of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation. Genes associated with RNA processing were downregulated. In liver regeneration , rapamycin induced genes associated with lysosomal metabolism, steroid metabolism, and the acute phase response. In fetal animals, rapamycin inhibited expression of genes in several functional categories that were unrelated to effects in the adult animals. Translation control showed marked fetal-adult differences. In both adult models, rapamycin inhibited the translation of genes with complex 5' untranslated regions, including those encoding ribosomal proteins. Fetal translation was resistant to the effects of rapamycin. We conclude that the mTOR pathway in liver serves distinct physiological roles in the adult and fetus, with the latter representing a condition of rapamycin resistance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

β-Cell dedifferentiation, reduced duct cell plasticity, and impaired β-cell mass regeneration in middle-aged rats .

Téllez, Noèlia; Vilaseca, Marina; Martí, Yasmina; Pla, Arturo; Montanya, Eduard

2016-09-01

Limitations in β-cell regeneration potential in middle-aged animals could contribute to the increased risk to develop diabetes associated with aging. We investigated β-cell regeneration of middle-aged Wistar rats in response to two different regenerative stimuli: partial pancreatectomy (Px + V) and gastrin administration (Px + G). Pancreatic remnants were analyzed 3 and 14 days after surgery. β-Cell mass increased in young animals after Px and was further increased after gastrin treatment. In contrast, β-cell mass did not change after Px or after gastrin treatment in middle-aged rats . β-Cell replication and individual β-cell size were similarly increased after Px in young and middle-aged animals, and β-cell apoptosis was not modified. Nuclear immunolocalization of neurog3 or nkx6.1 in regenerative duct cells, markers of duct cell plasticity, was increased in young but not in middle-aged Px rats . The pancreatic progenitor-associated transcription factors neurog3 and sox9 were upregulated in islet β-cells of middle-aged rats and further increased after Px. The percentage of chromogranin A+/hormone islet cells was significantly increased in the pancreases of middle-aged Px rats . In summary, the potential for compensatory β-cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy was retained in middle-aged rats , but β-cell dedifferentiation and impaired duct cell plasticity limited β-cell regeneration . Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

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